Tag - Network Topology

Networking Basics
CCNA – OSPF Questions

Networking Basics

1: What is the definition of a network?

** A network is a system of lines or channels that cross or interconnect, or a
group or system of electrical components and connecting circuitry designed to
function in a specific manner.

Networking Interview Questions

2: What are network models?

** Network models provide the guiding principles behind the development of
network standards.

3: What is a network standard, and why are there network standards?

** Network standards define the rules of network communication and are like
laws that must be followed for different equipment vendors to work together.

4: What is a proprietary feature?

** If a vendor implements a feature that does not adhere to any network
standards, it is called a proprietary feature.

5: What are the three data transmission modes, and how do they operate?

** Simplex mode, half-duplex mode, and full-duplex mode. Simplex mode is oneway communication only.
Half-duplex mode is two-way communication, but not at the same time. Full-duplex mode is simultaneous two-way communication.

6: List the major characteristics of a LAN.

** The primary characteristic of a LAN is its geographic coverage. LANs are

found in a small geographic area where there is a short distance between
connected computers, as in small offices or on each floor of a larger office
building. LANs enable the sharing of office resources, such as file servers for file
sharing among users or print servers for shared printers.

7: List the major characteristics of a MAN.

** MANs are found in a metropolitan, or citywide, geographic area,
interconnecting two or more office buildings in a broader geographic region than
a LAN would support, but not so broad that a WAN would be required.

8: List the major characteristics of a WAN.

** WANS are found in broad geographic areas, often spanning states and
countries, and are used to connect LANs and WANs together.

9: What are the three parts of a frame? What is a function of each part?

** Header, data (or payload), trailer. The header is the beginning of the frame,
significant in that the frame’s source and destination are found in the frame
header. The payload is the data part of the frame, the user’s information. The
trailer identifies the end of the frame.

10: What function in a network does cabling provide?

** Cabling provides the physical interconnection between network devices and nodes.

11: List some examples of user data.

** Examples of user data include e-mail, web-browsing traffic, word-processed
documents, spreadsheets, database updates.

12: What is the best definition of network topology?

** Network topology refers to the physical or logical geometric arrangement of
interconnected network devices.

13: What is the best definition of network protocol?

** A network protocol is the communication rules and formats followed by all
interconnected devices on a network requiring communication with one another.

14: What is the definition of network media?

** Network media refers to the physical component of a network. Communication
signals traverse network media from source to destination. Some examples of
network media are copper and fiber-optic cabling.

15: What is a network origination point?

** A network connection has two ends: the origination and termination points.
The origination point is the source of the data—the location from which the data
is being sent.

 16: What is a network termination point?

** A network connection has two ends: the origination and termination points.
The termination point is the destination of the data—the location to which the
data is being sent.



CCNA – OSPF Questions

Question 1:

Which of the following statements below best describe the process identifier that is used to run OSPF on a router? (Choose two)

A – It is an optional parameter required only if multiple OSPF processes are running on the router
B – It is locally significant
C – It is needed to identify a unique instance of an OSPF database
D – All routers in the same OSPF area must have the same process ID if they are to exchange routing information

Answer: B C

Question 3:

Which items are correct about the routing protocol OSPF? (Choose three)

A – Support VLSM
B – Increase routing overhead on the network
C – Confine network instability to one area of the network
D – Allow extensive control of routing updates

Answer: A C D


Routing overhead is the amount of information needed to describe the changes in a dynamic network topology. All routers in an OSPF area have identical copies of the topology database and the topology database of one area is hidden from the rest of the areas to reduce routing overhead because fewer routing updates are sent and smaller routing trees are computed and maintained (allow extensive control of routing updates and confine network instability to one area of the network).

Question 4:

Which three features are of OSPF routing protocol? (Choose three)

A – Converge quickly
B – OSPF is a classful routing protocol
C – Identify the best route by use of cost
D – Before exchanging routing information, OSPF routers find out neighbors

Answer: A C D

Question 5:

OSPF routing uses the concept of areas. What are the characteristics of OSPF areas? (Chose three)

A – Each OSPF area requires a loopback interface to be configured
B – Areas may be assigned any number from 0 to 65535
C – Area 0 is called the backbone area
D – Hierarchical OSPF networks do not require multiple areas
E – Multiple OSPF areas must connect to area 0
F – Single area OSPF networks must be configured in area 1

Answer: B C E


I used to think the answers should be C D E and here is my explanation:

OSPF can use an active interface for its router ID, so a loopback interface is not a must -> A is incorrect.

OSPF Area is a 32-bit number so we can use up to 232 – 1 = 4294967296 – 1 (since Area 0 is the first area). Remember that only process ID is a 16-bit number and ranges from 1 to 65535 -> B is incorrect.

F is incorrect too because single area OSPF netwoks must be configured in Area 0, which is called the backbone area.

For answer D, it is a bit hard to guess what they want to say about “hierarchical” but we should understand “Hierarchical OSPF networks” as “OSPF networks”. D is correct bercause we can only have one area (area 0 – the backbone area) for our networks.

But TT commented on 01-11-2010:

Especially to note on choice B, D, and E:

Choice B: we all know that The areas can be any number from 0 to 4.2 billion and 1 to 65,535 for the Process ID. As choice B specifies ‘area’ (be aware, it’s not saying ‘process id), there is no reason to say that we cannot assign numbers from 0 to 65535 for area # (it is using ‘may be’, not ‘have to be’ or ‘ought to be’). Hence, we do not worry about assigning ’0′.

Choice E: as Area 0 is the backbone, we all understand that any areas in a OSPF network have to be connected to it. And actually this is implicitly saying that multiple areas form a hierarchical OSPF network, as Area 0 being a root and others being its leaves.

Choice D: when it specifies ‘Hierarchical’, at least 2 areas should be required to form such topology (of course that includes Area 0)

Although Choice B is not an absolutely accurate statement since it not only can be assigned up to 65535, it is still a correct answer. And again, it specifies ‘area’, not ‘process id’, so ’0′ can be included. Finally, it would be meaningless to call OSPF a hierarchical network if no more than one area is present.

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